(Source: lunokajsteloj, via negritaaa)

Most of what we know — or think we know — about how kids learn comes from classroom practice and behavioral psychology. Now, neuroscientists are adding to and qualifying that store of knowledge by studying the brain itself. The latest example: new research in the journal suggests a famous phenomenon known as the “fourth-grade shift” isn’t so clear-cut.

"The theory of the fourth-grade shift had been based on behavioral data," says the lead author of the study, Donna Coch. She heads the Reading Brains Lab at Dartmouth College.

The assumption teachers make: “In a nutshell,” Coch says, “by fourth grade you stop learning to read and start reading to learn. We’re done teaching the basic skills in third grade, and you go use them starting in the fourth.”

But, Coch’s team found, that assumption may not be true. The study involved 96 participants, divided among third-, fourth-, and fifth-graders as well as college students. All average readers, the subjects wore noninvasive electrode caps that could swiftly pick up electrical activity in the brain.

They were shown strings of letters/symbols that fell into four different categories: words (“bed”); pseudo-words (“bem”); strings of letters (“mbe”) and finally, strings of meaningless symbols (@#*). The researchers then observed the subjects’ brains as they reacted, within milliseconds, to each kind of stimulus.

The children in the study handled the first three categories roughly as well as the college students, meaning their brains responded at a speed that suggested their word processing was automatic. The difference came with the fourth category, meaningless symbols. As late as fifth grade, children needed to use their conscious minds to decide whether the symbols were a word.

The study suggests there is nothing so neat as a fourth-grade shift. It found that third-graders exhibit some signs of automatic word processing while fifth-graders are still processing words differently from adults.

Why is this important? “From my perspective, this concept of automaticity is key to learning to read,” says Coch. “If you’re not automatic, you’re using a lot of effort to decode and understand individual words, meaning you have fewer resources for comprehension.”

Coch’s team also administered a written test, covering the same set of real words, fake words, and symbol strings. This task was designed to test the participants’ conscious word processing, a much slower procedure.

Interestingly, most of the 96 participants got a nearly perfect score on the written test, showing that their conscious brains knew the difference between words and non-words. Future research will no doubt try to pinpoint when that process becomes automatic … research that could change the way we teach reading in the higher grades.

(Source: afro-dominicano, via hiphopandinsubordination)

superwholocked-in-albion:

jeankd:

thegoddamazon:

The most important line in the whole damn song. MESSAGE.

The only historically accurate line in the whole film. 

excuse u

superwholocked-in-albion:

jeankd:

thegoddamazon:

The most important line in the whole damn song. MESSAGE.

The only historically accurate line in the whole film. 

excuse u

(via youngblackandvegan)

diancie:

I LOVE the Puerto Rican Princess Joseline Hernandez <3

(Source: naomicampbelle, via hiphopandinsubordination)

unknownshadeof:

This guys. Yes. This right here. The little shit statements such as these still matter a whole damn lot.

(Source: lookdifferentmtv, via korraisnottan)

(Source: roca-wear, via numinousnegrita)

"Whenever you’re going through a bad day just remember, your track record for getting through bad days, so far, is 100%; and that’s pretty damn good."

— My amazing friend (via pain-is-temporary-keep-fighting)

(via peakcapitolism)

"A white college student from a private college goes into a poor neighborhood and volunteers four hours a week and that’s considered exemplary. [Whereas] a poor kid who lives in that community and takes care of all the kids in that neighborhood four hours every day is not seen as a volunteer."

— Patricia Hill Collins (via ethiopienne)

Lookin’ at you, Teach For America. (via chronicallyqueer)

(Source: sampaguitagirl, via peakcapitolism)

(Source: convocat, via blackfashion)

fucknofetishization:

Why Guys Like Asian Girls - Anna Akana (A Critique of ‘Yellow Fever’)

This came up on my dash and I thought it would be useful here, your blog is spot on btw

blackfashion:

Wearing: KEYEZUA
Model: Shanti TelSubmitted by http://keyezuavision.tumblr.com/

blackfashion:

Wearing: KEYEZUA

Model: Shanti Tel

Submitted by http://keyezuavision.tumblr.com/

bellecosby:

hervacationh0me:

How can white people drink so much coffee?

it helps them stay awake long enough to infringe on people’s rights  

(via latinagabi)

"Here are women who sing about sex. Sexuality. Contemporary womanhood. Wholeness. Arrival. […] The record dismantles the idea that marriage, commitment, or monogamy ruins one’s sex life. It challenges the notion that a woman’s life should be lead in complete service to her child. This album is widely successful because it makes women feel good about themselves. I can see how that might be confusing for some […] Detractors decried the album’s explicit content in typical "Won’t someone think of the children?" form, seemingly forgetting that the singer is 32 and under no obligation to parent any child but her own. BEYONCÉ introduces Knowles as a sexual being, not a being sexualized by industry. She communicates her proclivities in her own certain terms. And yes, that may sometimes involve a duration on her knees. No, you may not watch." - From Janet To Beyoncé: Why It Matters When Black Women Sing About Sexuality 

(Source: beyoncexknowles, via negritaaa)

ohstella:

At the opening reception of “No Selves to Defend,” art exhibit &amp; fundraiser for the #Chicago Alliance to Free #MarissaAlexander hosted by @InTheseTimes. 7/18/14
Photo by the wonderful @sarahdashji (at In These Times)

ohstella:

At the opening reception of “No Selves to Defend,” art exhibit & fundraiser for the #Chicago Alliance to Free #MarissaAlexander hosted by @InTheseTimes. 7/18/14

Photo by the wonderful @sarahdashji (at In These Times)

(via womtynofcolor)